Monday, September 30, 2019

Themes in “Night” by Elie Wiesel

THemes 1. ) Man’s inhumanity to man Removal of human looks that defined who they are * Same uniform * Cut hair to remove individuality. * â€Å"In a few seconds we had ceased to be men† 37 * â€Å"I became A-7713. From then on, I had no other name†42 The harshness of the camp quickly transformed them into selfish indifferent people * â€Å"I had not even blinked, only yesterday I would have dug my nails into the criminals flesh† 39 * â€Å"you’re killing your father†101 * â€Å"The old man mumbled something, groaned and died. Nobody cared† 101 * â€Å"I shall never forgive myself.Nor shall I forgive the world for having pushed me against the wall, for having turned me into a stranger, for having awakened in me the basest, most primitive instincts. † Xii * â€Å"In this place, it is every man for himself, and you can not think of others. Not even your father. In this place there is no such thing as a father, brother, friend. Eac h of us lives and dies alone. † * â€Å"All of a sudden, this pleasant and intelligent young man had changed. His eyes were shining with greed† The inhumane treatment of Jews â€Å"He looked at us like a pack of leprous dogs clinging to life† 38 * â€Å"If one of us stopped for a second, a quick shot eliminated the filthy dog† 85 * â€Å"Two cauldrons of hot, steaming soup had been left untended†¦ supreme temptation â€Å"59 * â€Å"Hunger was tormenting us; we had not eaten for nearly six days† 114 * â€Å"We had been 100 or so in this wagon. Twelve of us left it† 103 * The removal of the Jew’s rights were the first sign of discrimination 2. ) Faith and Loss Loss of human life and integrity * â€Å"Those whose numbers had been noted were standing apart, abandoned by the whole world. 72 Faith in God and themselves made them stronger * â€Å"if only he could of kept his faith in God and considered this suffering as a divine tes t, he would not have been swept away by selection† * Have faith in life†¦ by driving out despair you will move away from death† 41 * â€Å"a prayer to this God in whom I no longer believed. Oh God master of the universe, give me the strength never to do what Rabbi Eliahu’s son has done. † * â€Å"we mustn’t give up hope, even now as the sword hangs over our heads. † Loss of faith in God made them weak â€Å"Where is God†¦ hanging here from the gallows† 65 * â€Å"My eyes had opened and I was alone, terribly alone in a world without God, without man. Without love or mercy. I was nothing but ashes now† 68 * â€Å"But as soon as he felt the first chinks in his faith, he lost all incentive to fight and opened the door to death† 77 * â€Å"I have more faith in Hitler than anybody else. He alone has kept his promises, all his promises to the Jewish people. † 81 * â€Å" I suffer hell in my soul and in my fleshà ¢â‚¬ ¦ how can anybody believe in this God of mercy† 3. ) Kindness in adversity Helping each other out in times of need Elie’s father made sure Elie didn’t â€Å"fall asleep forever† in the snow despite his exhaustion. Pg 88 * The French girl risked her life by saying to Elie in almost perfect German, â€Å"don’t cry. Keep your anger, your hate, for another day, for later. The day will come but not now†¦ wait. Clench your teeth and wait† * â€Å"Elie even gave his dying father extra rations, despite being told to â€Å"stop giving your ration of bread and soup too your old father†¦ in fact you should be getting his rations. † * Working through the struggles together see father son relationships Elie and father * â€Å"No.You’re eighteen†¦ Not fifty. You’re forty. Dou you hear? Eighteen and forty. † 30 4. ) Father/son relationship * Elie and his father * Elie’s father made sure Elie didnâ€⠄¢t â€Å"fall asleep forever† in the snow despite his exhaustion. Pg 88 * â€Å"my father’s presence was the only thing that stopped me† 87 * â€Å"I had no right to let myself die. What would he do without me? I was his sole support. † * â€Å"Elie even gave his dying father extra rations, despite being told to â€Å"stop giving your ration of bread and soup too your old father†¦ in fact you should be getting his rations. † * Rabbi Eliahu and his son â€Å"side by side they had endured the suffering , the blows; they had waited for their ration of bread and they had prayed† pg 91 * â€Å"he had felt his father growing weaker and, believing the end was near, had thought by this separation to free himself of a burden that could diminish his own chance for survival. †91 * The man on the train and his son * â€Å"You’re killing your father†¦ I have bread for you too†¦ for you to† 101 5. ) Conscience/remorse /indifference Indifference * â€Å"Since my father’s death, nothing mattered to me anymore† 113 * â€Å"The old man mumbled something, groaned and died.Nobody cared† 101 * â€Å"we no longer feared death† 60 * â€Å"I was no longer arguing with him but death itself, with death that he had already chosen† 105 Manipulated conscience/Remorse * â€Å"deep inside me, if I could have searched the recesses of my feeble conscience, I might have found something like: Free at last! * â€Å"I shall never forgive myself. Nor shall I forgive the world for having pushed me against the wall, for having turned me into a stranger, for having awakened in me the basest, most primitive instincts. † Xii * â€Å"I gave him what was left of my soup.But my heart was heavy, I was aware I was doing it grudgingly† 107 6. ) Survival and death Surviving by escaping reality * â€Å"All I had to do was close my eyes to see a whole world pass before me, to dream o f another life† 87 * â€Å"He was forever praying or meditating to some Talmudic question. For him it was an escape from reality, from feeling the blows† 86 Stars = Jews Conflagration = the war, destruction The idea of death * A place to rest without suffering Surviving to rebel against God/Germans * â€Å"Something inside me rebelled against that death† 88 * â€Å"We had transcended everything – death, fatigue, our natural needs.We were stronger than cold and hunger, stronger than the guns and the desire to die, doomed and rootles, nothing but numbers, we were the only men on earth† 87 * †there was no longer any reason for me to fast. I no longer accepted god’s silence. As I swallowed my ration of soup, I turned that act into a symbol of rebellion, of protest against him. † Just going through the motions and not losing hope * â€Å"There were two of us: my body and I† 85 * â€Å"Don’t think, don’t stop, runà ¢â‚¬  86 * â€Å"No one was praying for the night to pass quickly. Night was an escape from reality, a time of rest. The stars were but sparks of the immense conflagration that was consuming us. â€Å" The night was not nearly as bad as the day, only sparks of the war The Jews were just a part of the war * â€Å"Were this conflagration to be extinguished one day, nothing would be left in the sky but extinct stars and unseeing eyes. † What would happen if the war is finished?. Unseeing eyes =The holocaust may be forgotten, people choose to not see the light of God (loss of faith) Gods light (stars) will be destroyed God has turned his back on the people Extinct stars = people losing faith in the light of God

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Law of International Trade Essay

Introduction Coffee Beans that were bought in Sao Paulo, Brazil are to be transported to a depot based in Durham, England. The total weight of the Coffee Beans to be shipped is 1500 tonnes. At first, this may seem to be an ordinary shipment on the surface. However, when putting into perspective the amount of legalities to be fulfilled and the massive quantity of beans involved, the daunting nature of the task becomes evident. Every country has its own set of peculiar trade laws. These laws become more complex and stringent when it comes to International trade. However, while trading across boundaries, the local domestic law needs to be respected at any cost. An International trade law is a combination of the law of the land and international laws governing the transactions of goods or services across borders (Cornell, 2005). Multilateral treaties are also signed between countries to resolve disputes and effectively enforce mutually consented terms and conditions. This is done to standardize the entire process and prevent conflicts. For instance, the Convention on contracts for the International Sales of Goods  (CISG) is one such international trade agreement put forth by the UN to govern International trade operations. The different modes of transportation available for transportation need to be considered, keeping in mind a host of factors. This includes ensuring the safe transit of the beans at each and every point, right from the spot of purchase to the destination depot. Efforts also need to be made to make the process as economical as possible. The reduction in transportation charges would translate to higher levels of profit. The sharing of the costs involved in shipping the beans should be properly worked out and the decisions should be incorporated into the agreement. The point at which the seller’s liability ends also needs to be appropriately documented.   It is usually indicated by the INCO terms. Although economy in transportation is essential, it should not come at the cost of invaluable time. The goods also need to be transported within a reasonable timeframe. The laws regulating trade in the departure as well as destination points need to be properly interpreted, in order to avoid confusion at a later point of time. This calls for relevant paperwork which would certify the legitimacy of the whole process. To start with, the whole process needs to be broken down into different steps. The purchase of coffee beans can either be from a manufacturer or a wholesaler. Relevant proof of purchase provided should be provided by the seller, after receiving the agreed price. Other export licences should be purchased, in order to ship them to the depot in Durham. Then, the purchased beans are moved to a warehouse. Since the purchased goods are quite voluminous and bulky, transporting the goods through best the most cost-effective solution. However, the goods from the seller’s premises have to be transported to a warehouse. A warehouse is usually an empty storage with adequate facilities for moving goods. It is used by manufacturers, businesses, importers, wholesalers, exporters and customs agency to intermediately store goods. The seller would have to notify the buyer about the estimated time of arrival. The seller would also have to provide necessary proof documents of each stage involved in the carriage of the goods. A host of expenses are usually incurred during the carriage of goods from one country to another. This includes expenses incurred in Warehouse storage and labour, export packing, loading charges, inland freight, terminal charges, forwarder’s fee, vessel loading charges, charges upon arrival, ocean/ air freight, excise duty, taxes, customs and charges upon delivery at the destination. While carrying out International trade, the main concern is the surety of obtaining payments within an acceptable period of time. This concern is addressed by the concept of Documentary Credits. Documentary Credit is a system by which the buyer instructs his bank to pay the seller. On the basis of customer trust, the bank transfers the funds to the seller’s bank account on the behalf of the buyer. However, adequate documents in support of the concerned transaction will have sent from the ship to the seller’s bank. After verifying these documents, they are sent to the buyer’s bank for further processing (Fraud Aid, 2005). In this arrangement, the bank becomes the primary obligator, thereby promoting healthy International trade by eliminating doubts and concerns about payment. The written instruction given by the buyer to his bank is also commonly known as letter of credit (L/C). The International Chamber of Commerce has defined some internationally recognised trading terms. These terms are otherwise referred to as INCO terms 2000. These trading terms are commonly used during the overseas transportation of goods. They are used to indicate whether it is the seller or buyer that has to produce the required documents essential for carrying out trade on a global scale. The INCO terms should be followed by the named place mentioned in the contract (International Business Institute, 2000). The named place in this case is Durham, England. These terms are capable of designating the liabilities as well as rights of each party involved. Incoterms 2000 ‘Ex Works’ refers to type of delivery where the entire cost and risk of transporting the goods from seller’s premises to the final destination is borne by the buyer. This model is highly beneficial to the seller, since there is no risk involved. The seller does not even have to take up the responsibility of loading the goods from his premises, as the only obligation will be to make goods available. The relevant invoice and testimonials mentioned in the contract will also have to be provided by the seller. The short term for Ex Works is EXW. ‘Free Alongside Ship’ transfers the risk and cost of transportation when the seller transports the goods to the quay, alongside the ship. The abbreviation for Free Alongside Ship is FAS. In ‘Free Carrier’, the responsibility of ensuring the safety of the goods ends for the seller when the goods are handed over to the Carrier’s custody at a mutually agreed location. This location is referred to as the named point. In Free On Board, the seller bears the liability until the goods are put on board the ship at the Port of shipment. The port of shipment is mentioned in the contract. From this point, the risk transfers to the Buyer. This is commonly known as FOB. In Cost & Freight (CFR), the seller ships the goods to the named Port of destination mentioned in the contract, by paying the freight charges. The buyer then takes up complete responsibility when the goods pass over the ship’s rail at the Port. The conditions of Cost Insurance & Freight are similar to the previous one. However, the Seller has to take the additional responsibility of paying the insurance premium on the buyer’s behalf. This is denoted by CIF. The seller has to also incur expenses in insuring all the risks until the named destination, in the case of Carriage & Insurance Paid (CIP). When the seller bears the freight charges of the goods until they reach the mutually agreed location, it is mentioned as Carriage Paid (APT). As soon as the goods reach the first carrier, it becomes a liability of the buyer. In Delivery at Frontier (DAB), the seller bears the charges and liabilities until the goods enter the Frontier.   When the goods reach the Customs process, it risk transfers to the buyer. Delivered Duty Paid (ADP) is most favorable to the buyer, since the seller will bear all charges incurred in delivering the goods to the buyer. Delivered Duty Unpaid is similar to ADP, with the exception of import duty and other official import charges that are borne by the buyer. In Delivered Ex Ship (DES), the responsibility and cost of transferring the goods passes from the seller to the buyer when the ship carrying the goods reaches the destination port. It will be the buyer’s responsibility to discharge the goods.   Delivered Ex Quay (DEQ) is of two types; Duty Paid and Duty on Buyers Account. The seller has the obligation to deliver the goods in the quay of the destination port. Either the buyer or the sealer takes up the responsibility of the paying the duty, according to the initial agreement. Farther considerations Many factors have to be considered when it comes to structuring a carriage contract agreement. There are three forms of carriage; common carriage, contract carriage and private carriage. Common carriage is a type of carrier service catering to the general public to perform common transportation services. These services have to be authorized by various government regulatory agencies. The tariffs that are charged for the service lawfully demanded locations are held by these agencies. Contract carriage involves transportation services to an unlimited number of posts. These agencies also have to get necessary authorization from the same agencies. Relevant contracts consisting of details about the minimum rates and charges are filed at different granting agencies and. Copies of this contract are also retained at the facilities of the shippers as well as the carriers.  Private carriage offers transportation services to business enterprises.   This service is for meant for manufacturers and distributors that transport their goods in their private vehicles driven by their own employees. It is also commonly known as shipper-carrier. The ‘distinct needs’ provision takes care of distinguishing the different carriage types. It is very essential to distinguish between a normal contract and a carriage contract; failure to accomplish this could result in several liability issues on both sides. This distinct needs provision helps to distinguish a carriage contract from a regular one. This provision incorporates certain unique terms and conditions including specific requirements of a shipper and the obligations that need to be satisfied by the contract carrier. Some of the commonly mention distinct needs in a carriage contract agreement are price adjustment clauses, terms of credit, incidental transportation charges, cargo transfer charges and specific delivery schedules. However, the shipper should truly comprise these unique services if they are mentioned. A certain degree of reasonableness should be allowed while dealing with carriage contracts. First of all, one has to understand various shipping term in order to comprehend the shipping rules better. ‘Carrier’ is a term used to refer to the person who signs the contract of carriage with a shipper. It is usually the owner or charterer who hires a ship to carry their cargo, passengers or other goods. ‘Shipper’ refers to the person who pays money to the carrier to transport his goods (Arnold, 2003). Hence, the term ‘shipper’ may either refer to the buyer or the seller of the beans, depending upon the INCO term in use. Carrier is the company or agency which undertakes to ship the beans from Brazil to England. The Contract of carriage will apply to agreements mentioned in the bill of lading or any similar document that concerns the carriage of goods by sea.   The term ‘goods’ is used to refer to wares, merchandise and other articles. However, live animals are not included in the goods category. Goods such as brandy and gun powder were classified as dangerous goods. The validity period of the Contract of carriage starts from the time of goods being loaded until they are unloaded from the ship. Hague & Hague Visby Rules Hague rules were framed by the International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law relating to Bills of Lading and Protocol of Signature. It came into effect on 25 August 1924 in Brussels. It was an effort to constitute a minimum mandatory liability for carriers, since most of them were evading the liability due to loss or damage of cargo. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development   (OECD), this was a move by the International community to fabricate a fair system for the shipper as well as the carrier. Even today, these rules act as the foundation for framing marine trading laws for a majority of the nations around the world. According to Hague Rules, the carrier will be liable to bear the cost of damaged or lost goods only if the shipper is able to prove that the shipper’s lack or absence of diligence. However, the carrier would not be held liable if the ship was unseaworthy. The carrier will also lose the liability to compensate for the goods, when the damage is caused by a natural calamity termed as ‘Act of God’ or a fire accident which is caused to due to any reason other than a fault in the carrier vessel. The carrier will also not be liable for damages caused due to the act of terrorists, war or and other anti-social elements like pirates. The carrier would not be responsible for a delay in the delivery of goods, if the delay was caused due to an emergency situation like lockouts, quarantine operations or public strikes. The shipper would not be able to claim damages from the carrier, even in the event of neglect of the duty by the employees of the ship.    Hence, this enabled the carrier to get away with liabilities arising as a result of errors made by the people working on board such as mariners and the carrier’s working staff, if the carrier was in a position to prove that the ship was seaworthy and adequately and appropriately manned (Admiralty Law Guide, 2006). Since this provision lets carriers to get away scot-free, it has posed a serious conflict in balancing liabilities between the carrier and shipper. Transportation of goods involves two main types of contracts. They are Carriage Contract Agreement and Bill of Lading Contract. Carriage Contract Agreements are usually signed when long shipments are involved. It serves as a continuing contract that stands for the safe delivery of goods to promised destination. It usually covers multiple shipments that are necessary to carry out a long shipment process. The complete shipment process may involve other modes of transportation such as ground and air shipment.   However, carriage contract can not serve as a receipt of merchandise. The Bill of Lading is issued by the carrier as a proof of receiving the goods and serves as receipt of merchandise. A Bill of Lading is an agreement for a single shipment process which may be a part of a long process. In the practical sense, it is a list of expenditures incurred towards loading goods into a vessel. It is governed by all the terms and conditions mentioned in the Carriage Contract. It also acts as certificate that verifies the authenticity of the loaded goods. Further, it indicates whether the received goods were in good condition or not. Depending upon condition of the goods and packaging, the Bill of Lading is classified as Clean or Foul Bill of Lading. It also is further proof of the existence of a Carriage Contract (Wikipedia, 2006). However, the Bill of lading and Carriage Contract are completely different entities and they serve different purposes. Hence, the Bill of Lading can not be used as a Contract Carriage and vice versa. There are three types of bill of lading; straight bill of lading, order bill of lading and bearer bill of lading. In straight bill of lading, the consignee can claim damages from the consigner when the goods are not delivered on time due to defaulting or negligence of the consigner. This bill of lading is non-negotiable. In order bill of lading, the consignee can obtain delivery of goods if the consignee provides a bill and evidence showing the consigner’s interest to transfer. This bill of lading is negotiable. In bearer bill of lading, any person holding the bill of landing is entitled to receive the goods. When the consigner does not mention the consignee’s name, it becomes a bearer bill and can be negotiated. Goods that are issued with a negotiable bill of lading can be received only if the original documents are presented at the time of delivery. However, the speeding of trade and transit operations has given way to the issue of non-negotiable documents for goods, which enables the consigner to receive the goods by just presenting the non-negotiable bill of lading (Forwarder Law, 2005). Some of the standard obligations that have to be fulfilled by the consigner include providing the carrier with consignee’s name and address and destination of the carriage. The nature, weight, volume and the quantity of the goods to be shipped are also to be clearly stated. Even the packing and wrapping style, number of packages and any other details needed to identify the goods need to be provided by the consigner. The consignor would be held be responsible for any damages, in the event of false or insufficient details being provided. According to Article 283 of the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act (CGSA) (1924), the Bill of Lading can be issued either in the name of a particular person or the bearer.   It usually consists of the following details, 1) Date of issuing the bill. 2) Venue where the bill was signed and brought to effect. 3) Place of departure and destination. 4) Names and addresses of the consignor, consignee, carrier and the carriage commission agent. 5) The value and identification details of the shipped items. 6) Date of shipping. 7) Freight and other expenses with an indication of whether they are payable by the consignor or the consignee. 8) The conditions pertaining to the loading and unloading, type of transport means required to be used for carriage, the route to be followed, a determination of the responsibility and any other special conditions which may be included in a carriage contract. In addition to the bill of lading, the carrier also issues a non-negotiable receipt called waybill which proves to be useful in a situation when the goods arrive before the transaction documents. It is also issued when the consignee and the consigner is the same person (Evans, 2001). This option can be chosen when the consigner decides to reduce paperwork. A ship’s delivery order is another document that undertakes to carry goods by sea. The provisions for this document are provided by the CGSA (1992). However, this document can neither substitute a waybill nor a bill of lading. According to Article 284 of the CGSA (1924), the carrier would be required to issue a bill of lading to the consigner. Alternatively, the carrier can also give a receipt mentioning the details of the goods carried and date of consignment to the consigner. The consigner would be required to deliver the goods to be shipped at the carrier’s premises. The consigner should also produce relevant document deemed necessary for shipping. The consigner will be held responsible for any liability arising as a result of inaccurate or incomplete information in the documents provided. According to Article 288 of the CGSA (1924), Since the carrier possesses the right to examine the packaged goods and the standard of packing before the carriage, the damage of goods arising due to improper packaging is not entirely borne by the consigner; the liability is shared with the carrier. According to Article 289 of the same Act, the initial examination of the goods would require the presence of the consigner, if opening of packaging is involved. If the consigner is absent during the inspection process, the examination would progress and examination costs would be levied from the consigner. If the carrier finds the goods to be unsuitable for transit, the consigner would be informed about the same. Such goods would be shipped by the carrier only if the consigner bears the liability of damage of goods and the consigner’s consent about the same is incorporated into the Bill of Lading. Cargo Insurance compensates the shipper with losses caused due to fire, loss of cargo and damage. However, losses that can be recovered from the carrier will not be compensated by Insurance Company. It is also popularly known as Marine insurance. It is further classified into Inland and Ocean Marine Insurance. Inland Marine Insurance is issued for goods that are transported without the involving any form sea transport and Ocean Marine Insurance is meant for goods that are shipped through waterways. The three pillars of Marine Insurance are insurable interest, utmost good faith, and indemnity (Export 911). Marine Insurance is not mandatory, unless it is mentioned so in the agreement. The proof of Insurance is provided by the Insurance policy duly signed by the authority of the Insurance Company.   Generally, the insurance would cover the loss or damage of coffee beans under normal circumstances. However, the insurance would become void when the shipper tries to or succeeds in causing intentional damage. When the loss of coffee beans is meagre or caused as a result of improper packaging, the insurance would not cover the loss. According to Article 292 of the CGSA (1924), the carrier is obliged to travel in the mutually agreed upon route mentioned in the agreement. However, the carrier is expected to take the shortest route if a route is not mentioned in the agreement. However, the carrier can change course if any unavoidable situation arises and the carrier would not be held liable for any loss caused to the consigner due to the late delivery of goods, provided a genuine reason is established. The goods being transported by the carrier should be properly safeguarded. The costs incurred in achieving this objective, such as repackaging charges are solely borne by the carrier. However, this does not imply taking additional care of the goods being transported. For instance, when animals are being shipped, the carrier will not be responsible for maintaining the health of the animal by providing food and water. The same condition will stand good while transporting plants as well. However, the carrier would have to take up such responsibilities, if such conditions governing the well-being of plants and animal are incorporated in the agreement Generally, the carrier will have the obligation to discharge the goods from the ship and bear the charges incurred towards it. In the event of the agreement not requiring the delivery of the shipped item to the consignee’s facility, then the consignee would have to receive the same on a particular date fixed by the carrier. If the consignee fails to do so, then s/he would have to bear the charges incurred by the carrier for storing the shipped item. However, the consignee has the right to examine the contents before acknowledging the receipt and refuse the same, if the carrier is not co-operating. The next protocol towards the emancipation of the shippers came in the form of the Brussels protocol in 1968. It was responsible for infusing an important clause called the ‘container clause’. It enabled shippers to claim the compensation for each container specified in the Bill of Lading (Admiralty Law, 2005). As a result, this liability system came to be known as the Hague-Visby Rules. An additional protocol was added in 1979 to enhance and revise the rules. However, neither of two supplementary protocols of the Hague rules was able to effectively modify the basic liability provisions. Hamburg Rules The Hamburg rules were enforced at the United Nations Convention on the Carriage of Goods by Sea held in Hamburg on 30 March 1978. The chief objective was to enforce a system that would share the liabilities and obligations between shipper and carrier in fairer manner. However, it was only able to mildly move the liabilities to the carrier.   In addition to the terms carrier, shipper, goods and ship, a term called ‘Actual carrier’ is defined by the Hamburg rules. It refers to a person or an agency to which the carrier hands over the complete or partial responsibility of carrying the goods. The time period for claiming the liabilities caused by the carrier is also specified by the Hamburg rules. The shipper can sue the carrier for any liabilities with a two year time period from the date of delivery of the goods. This period can be extended by issuing appropriate legal declarations. However, this time period gets reduced to 90 days, in the case of a second claim after the verdict is reached for the first claim. First of all, a written complaint has to be instituted to the carrier within the next working day, in the case of apparent damage or loss. However, in the case of damage or loss not being evident, the shipper would have to file a written complaint to the carrier within 15 days of receiving the goods. In order to be in a position to claim damages due to delay, the carrier would have to give a compliant to the shipper within 60 days of the delivery. The complaint can be sent to the carrier in writing or via telegraph. Adequate facilities will also have provided by both parties to inspect and clarify these claims. If the shipper fails to satisfy any of the aforementioned conditions, he or she will not be able to claim damages from the carrier. The Hamburg rules also specify the limits for liability compensation. The compensation for the liabilities arising as a result of damage or loss can not exceed an amount more than 2.5 units of account per kilogram or 835 units of account per package. This unit is quantified by the International Monetary Fund as a result of a Special Drawing Right. If the shipper’s State is a member of the International Monetary Fund, then the units would be changed into the State’s currency on the judgment day. If the shipper’s State is not a member of the International Monetary Fund, the units would be converted according to the State’s local laws. The liabilities for delay in the delivery of goods should not be more than the total freight payable; it can be up to two and a half times the freight payable for the goods that are delayed, under the contract of carriage. Arbitrations & Disputes The arbitration of these claims and general disputes would normally take place in a venue of the claimer’s preference. However, the place should be with in accordance to the stipulations mentioned. It should not be a place outside the State where the defendant’s business or residence is located. It can also take place in a State where the contract was signed or at the place of loading or unloading the goods. Judicial action may also be taken against the carrier in the same places mentioned above. It is better to insure the coffee beans before they are to be shipped onboard a vessel, due to the risks involved in transportation. Since the carriers have only restricted limitations, it does make sense to obtain insurance. Most carriers shipping from Sao Paulo to Durham, for instance ‘Xiameter’ (2006) follows Carriage and Insurance Paid (CIP) delivery. Therefore, it is better to ship the coffee beans through a reputed carrier, in order to minimise risks and complete the shipping within a desired period of time. Bibliographies ACE- Baracuda, Guide to Incoterms, http://www.ace-baracuda.com/template7.asp?pageid=26 (accessed at: 23 April 2006) Admiralty and Maritime Law Guide, International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law relating to Bills of Lading (â€Å"Hague Rules†), and Protocol of Signature: http://www.admiraltylawguide.com/conven/haguerules1924.html (accessed at: 23 April 2006) Briel, E. (1947) International Straits: A treatise on International law, Nyt Nordisk Forlag, Copenhagen. Brooks, M, (2000) Sea Change in Liner Shipping: Regulation and Managerial Decision-Making in Global Industry, Pergamon press, Amsterdam. Brown, E.D. (1997) Law of Sea History. Bernhardt, R. (Ed), Encyclopaedia of Public International Law, Amsterdam, Northern Holland. Brugmann, G. (2003) Access to Maritime ports, Master of Laws (LLM), Books on Demand GmbH, Noderstedt, Germany. Caron, D. (1989) Ships, Nationality and Status. Bernhardt, R (Ed) Encyclopaedia of Public International law, Vol. 11, Amsterdam, Northern Holland. Lex Mercatoria: Information on United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), UN Convention on the Carriage of Goods by Sea 1978: http://www.jus.uio.no/lm/un.sea.carriage.hamburg.rules.1978/doc (accessed at: 23 April 2006) References Admiralty Law (2005) Hague-Visby Rules. Available from: http://www.admiraltylaw.com/statutes/hague.html (accessed at: 29 April 2006). Admiralty Law Guide (2006) Hague Rules. Available from: http://www.admiraltylawguide.com/conven/haguerules1924.html (accessed at: 28 April 2006). Arnold, A (2003) Relocation Terminology. Available from: http://www.aarnold.net/terminology.htm (accessed at: 28 April 2006). Evans, J (2001) Law of International Trade, 3rd Edition, Old Bailey Press, London. Cornell Law School. (2005) International Trade. Available from: http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/index.php/International_trade (accessed at: 29 April 2006). Export 911. Principles of Cargo Insurance. Available from: http://www.export911.com/e911/ship/principl.htm#xInstitute (accessed at: 30 April 2006). Forwarder Law. Status of Seaway Bills. Available from: http://www.forwarderlaw.com/library/view.php?article_id=237 (accessed at: 30 April 2006). Fraud Aid. (2005) Documentary Credit. Available from: http://www.fraudaid.com/Dictionary-of-Financial-Scam-Terms/documentary_credit.htm (accessed at: 28 April 2006). International Business Institute. (2000) Incoterms 2000. Available from: http://www.i-b-t.net/incoterms.html (accessed at: 29 April 2006). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Hague Rules of 1924. Available from: http://www.oecd.org/document/41/0,2340,en_2649_34367_2086825_1_1_1_1,00.html (accessed at: 29 April 2006) (2006) Bill of Lading. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_of_lading (accessed at: 28 April 2006). Xiameter (2006) Incoterms 2000 Descriptions. Available from: xiameter.com/content/bxrules/incoterms.pdf (accessed at: 24 April 2006).

Saturday, September 28, 2019

The Jilting of Granny Weatherall

â€Å"Uncertainty of Control† In â€Å"The Jilting of Granny Weatherall,† her name, weatherall, or seen as weathered by it all, shows that she has been through everything, especially through times of doubt oruncertainty. Granny Weatherall is a very controlling woman;however, she comes to realize there are many things that she cannot control. She also believes that she has lived a very happy life, however, when she is starting to die, she realizes that there are many things that she wishes she could change. Granny Weatherall is very uncertain of many things throughoutthe story. One of the main things she is uncertain aboutis whether or not she is dying. She tells the doctor to â€Å"get along and doctor your sick†¦leave a well womanalone† (203). In her mind, she is not going to die because she has not planned or it. She says she still has a ton of things to get done so it cannot be her time to pass away. However, death is something that she cannot control, just like George leaving her at the altar. As she is trying to get some rest, the memory of George comes back to her, â€Å"what does a women do when she has put on the white veil and set out the white cake for a man and he doesn’t care?†¦ but a whirl of dark smoke rose and covered it, crept up and over into the bright field where everything was planted so carefully in orderly rows. That was hell, she knew hell when she saw it. For sixty years she had prayed against remembering him and against losing her soul in the deep pit of hell† (206). This shows that she is still very bitter about George leaving her at the altar and still very confused by it. The main reason for this confusion is because this was something that she did not plan and did not have anycontrol over. When the text says she was dreaming of a â€Å"bright field where everything was planted so carefully in orderly rows,† it shows that she likes to have order in her life, and that George messed up this order. The story uses many literary tools to help the readers realize that Granny Weatherall does not like uncertainty and that she is still uncertain of thingsto come. In the last paragraph, the story uses imagery to describe how Granny Weatherall really feels. â€Å"For the second time there was no sign. Again no bridegroom and the priestin the house. She could not remember any other sorrow because this grief wiped them all away. Oh, no, there’s nothing more cruel than this—I’ll never forgive it. She stretched herself with a deep breath and blew out the light† (209). Here she is referring back to her first jilting of when there was no groom and only the priest was there. However, this time she is referring to her death, which she has no control over, and she is now coming to this realization. This imagery of being left at the altar for the second time, shows she is scared that she is being jilted again. However, this time by God, which she is more hurt by than any other thing that has everhappened to her. She now realizes that she has no control over her life, which really scares her. The Jilting of Granny Weatherall â€Å"Uncertainty of Control† In â€Å"The Jilting of Granny Weatherall,† her name, weatherall, or seen as weathered by it all, shows that she has been through everything, especially through times of doubt oruncertainty. Granny Weatherall is a very controlling woman;however, she comes to realize there are many things that she cannot control. She also believes that she has lived a very happy life, however, when she is starting to die, she realizes that there are many things that she wishes she could change. Granny Weatherall is very uncertain of many things throughoutthe story. One of the main things she is uncertain aboutis whether or not she is dying. She tells the doctor to â€Å"get along and doctor your sick†¦leave a well womanalone† (203). In her mind, she is not going to die because she has not planned or it. She says she still has a ton of things to get done so it cannot be her time to pass away. However, death is something that she cannot control, just like George leaving her at the altar. As she is trying to get some rest, the memory of George comes back to her, â€Å"what does a women do when she has put on the white veil and set out the white cake for a man and he doesn’t care?†¦ but a whirl of dark smoke rose and covered it, crept up and over into the bright field where everything was planted so carefully in orderly rows. That was hell, she knew hell when she saw it. For sixty years she had prayed against remembering him and against losing her soul in the deep pit of hell† (206). This shows that she is still very bitter about George leaving her at the altar and still very confused by it. The main reason for this confusion is because this was something that she did not plan and did not have anycontrol over. When the text says she was dreaming of a â€Å"bright field where everything was planted so carefully in orderly rows,† it shows that she likes to have order in her life, and that George messed up this order. The story uses many literary tools to help the readers realize that Granny Weatherall does not like uncertainty and that she is still uncertain of thingsto come. In the last paragraph, the story uses imagery to describe how Granny Weatherall really feels. â€Å"For the second time there was no sign. Again no bridegroom and the priestin the house. She could not remember any other sorrow because this grief wiped them all away. Oh, no, there’s nothing more cruel than this—I’ll never forgive it. She stretched herself with a deep breath and blew out the light† (209). Here she is referring back to her first jilting of when there was no groom and only the priest was there. However, this time she is referring to her death, which she has no control over, and she is now coming to this realization. This imagery of being left at the altar for the second time, shows she is scared that she is being jilted again. However, this time by God, which she is more hurt by than any other thing that has everhappened to her. She now realizes that she has no control over her life, which really scares her.

Friday, September 27, 2019

To what extent is the work of philosophers such as Popper, Kuhn, Essay - 1

To what extent is the work of philosophers such as Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos and Feyerabend useful in forming a critical judgement of modern economic practice - Essay Example e complexities that most people tend to consider irrelevant but I believe mostly significant in order to fully comprehend the standards of the era we are living right in. I would want to examine and expound more of the modern practices that various economists of today have been doing so as to provide and present a clear illustration and brilliant depiction of an intermingling global economic viewpoint. Doing this, I shall be indulging and expounding more of the different approaches, methods and technical procedures that recent philosophers have used in various investigations and explanations of economic concepts and theories. As for this paper, I would not only be elaborating further on how these economic concepts affect the people’s mind-set, but I shall be of critique as to how these theories have shaped the contemporary practices that we can observe today. Having said this, I should note that economics, as a whole, as what Pheby has said in Methodology and Economics is not exactly similar, in fact very different, with other behavioural sciences and physical sciences like sociology, political science, physics and chemistry respectively. This is since economics is a very strange branch of science that is somehow dependent on human actions and on how these actions are deemed important as to the evaluation of results and analysis of consequences and outcomes (Blaug 1980). To start my observation and analysis, I would want to give and make sense of the technical definition of empirical research as the basis of my fundamental argument. As lifted from a journal article entitled Empirical Research published by the Norfolk State University, empirical research has been defined as the systemic research process which only involves predetermined observations and measured phenomena. It reports and publishes facts and figures based on observed results and actual experimental quantifications in order to generate a relationship and draw numerical conclusions involving two or

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Applying SWOT analysis to Vauxhall as a firm bases in EU Essay

Applying SWOT analysis to Vauxhall as a firm bases in EU - Essay Example The foremost impact of political policies and regulations is seen on the socially responsible conduct of businesses in the region. Due to the increasing pressure of environmental activists and consumer groups, car manufacturing businesses in the region are forced by the political administration to manufacturer automobiles that are safer with minimum harm the ecological environment (European Monitoring Centre on Change, 2004). Additionally, the Political administration of the region also works together towards providing relief to automobile manufacturing businesses in the form of levies on taxes, easing recruitment regulations and providing incentives for incorporating social responsibility framework in business practices. The economic outlook of EU region is somehow unstable. There are countries in the continental alliance that are experiencing an economic downturn and are forced to provide bail-out plans to businesses in their respective countries. Spain and UK are the biggest example of financially unstable countries in the region. As a result, the purchasing power and spending trends of consumers in financially unstable countries of the region is reflecting a unfavorable trend. On the contrary, the car manufacturers in EU region are considered as a vital economic stimulator. This is because, in the manufacturing of automobiles, the manufacturers utilize other complimenting products such as textile output, aluminum, copper, steel, computer chips, iron, lead, plastic, vinyl and rubber. Considering this assertion, it can be said the car manufacturing is an important driver of the region’s economy (European Commission, 2009). The society in EU region perceives their vehicles to be reflecting their social status. Majority of the societies in EU region prefer vehicles that are environment friendly and designed keeping in view the

Eaarth by Bill McKibben - A New Devastated Planet Essay

Eaarth by Bill McKibben - A New Devastated Planet - Essay Example It should be noted that the author has a particular reason for adding another ‘a’ in the spelling, i.e. he considers that humans are not living on the planet Earth. Humans have over-populated the planet with increased global warming and testing nuclear bombs on earth. It is the pollution and industrial sweep that have actually made the frozen tips of mountains to melt down, causing increased sea levels leading to floods. There are many other reasons behind the global warming that have actually led the author to think of a title which has an additional ‘a’. (McKibben). The philosophy behind the entitlement of the book is not an illusion. The need of the hour is to address the climate change that is taking place with fast pace. It should be noted that Bill McKibben has also noted the fact in his work that it is already too late to make change, because the greatest damage that is likely to place is already underway. Humans have avoided the consequences a great deal, which is resulted in the present situation (McKibben). Bill McKibben has already been writing for many newspapers including The New York Times and Mother Jones etc. The subject matter of his writing has always been environment and nature. His first book was published in 1989 which remarkably educated people about climate change and its basics. His first book about climate change was more like an encyclopedia that was translated in many languages and published throughout the world. Despite the renounce of his book, the attitude towards climate change by major countries of the world remains avoidable. In other words it could be said that the book written on the subject of environment has been a part of encyclopedia but none actually tried to act on it (McKibben). It seems that Bill McKibben blames the bigger industries for the oil spills and ruining the marine life. There are many instances of his writing pieces that show anguish concern against the multinational organizations. According to his book Eaarth, it was noted that there are many oil companies that have marked increased profits within the time period of three years. This shows that companies are more interested to make maximum profits without having any considerations of the environment (McKibben). The philosophy of Bill McKibben is not any different than that of other environmentalists, such as John Muir and Edward Abby, but the approach is far effective than others. If we compare the written pieces of John Muir and Bill McKibben, it comes to understanding that John has rather discussed the beautiful scenarios of the planet E,arth whereas Bill McKibben shows the changing aspects of the environment that will not let the beautiful scenarios to remain seeable for the future generations (Muir). Readers of the essays by John Muir would surely understand the beauty of different parts of the world. The book takes the readers to the adventurous and beautiful ride to the world. But it should be noted tha t the climate change taking place in the world is deadly and can cause a number of fatalities such as volcanoes, tsunami, hurricanes and spread of deadly diseases which have already increased its toll (Muir). The philosophy of Bill McKibben is not just based upon writing implications but also practical intervening. Bill

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Theories of the origin of religion by Durkheim and Freud Essay

Theories of the origin of religion by Durkheim and Freud - Essay Example Since faith has always been a subject of grave concern for a large majority of the people belonging to diverse ethno-racial and social backgrounds since ever, the topic maintains great sociological significance in its scope. Religion is rightly stated to be an essential part of the public and private life of the individuals belonging to various cultures and civilisations since the known history of the globe (R Lowe, 1963:532-3). It is partly because of man’s developing strong belief in the metaphysical objects and supernatural powers existing in the universe, with which man maintains emotional and sentimental association (C Ember & M Ember, 2007:393). These supernatural powers are considered to be strongly influencing the destiny of the people by dint of their control over the universal phenomena. Not only this that these powers are in a position of providing the humans with emotional and financial support, but also they serve as the forces that play decisive role in protectin g them from all internal setbacks and external threats (A Kroeber, 1963:82-3). Additionionally, these forces are thought to be having the power to inflict woes and pains upon the humans; as well as liberating them from these calamities at the moment when the humans seek their support on finding themselves absolutely vulnerable. (Ember & Ember, 2007:395). In other terms, supernatural forces have been thought to be maintaining absolute control over the destiny of humans in all respects. Consequently, primitive man had established his belief in these powers in order to escape pains and sufferings of different kinds, and for obtaining all comforts and joys life offered to him, along with attaining pelf, power and possession that could earn dominant place for him over fellow-humans and other creatures. Almost similar views have been articulated by distinguished French sociologist-theorist Emile Durkheim in his Elementary Forms of the Religious Life (1912). Durkheim’s Perspective: While discussing the origin of religion, Durkheim seeks supports from the relics of ancient era clans observing distinctive spiritual norms and practices. â€Å"A religion is†, Durkheim asserts, â€Å"a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, including set apart and forbidden beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral community called a Church, all those who adhere to them† (J Breaux, 2008:1). The theorist is of the opinion that the nature of bonding among the humans in primitive era was limiteed in the sense that every individual was bound to fulfil the needs attributed to him, his family and clan, without seeking help from the other groups outside the tribe altogether. As a result, everyone had to get involved into the hunting and food-gathering activities. Hence, the concept of in-group and out-group used to prevail in such a strong manner that the people did not bother to render any assistance to the members of the external g roups (J Macionis, 2008:481). It was partially because of the fear of assault and attack from the external tribes, which created rivalry among the ancient time clans against one another. Such a state of absolute isolation not only kept the primitive era humans away from the fellow-beings, but also developed his strong relationship with their specific clans on the one side, and the supernatural powers on the other. Since supernatural powers could turn out to be supportive one with regards to the accomplishments of the basic human needs and desires (H Ross,

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

From ''Infitah of Abundance'' to ''Infitah of Poverty'' Essay

From ''Infitah of Abundance'' to ''Infitah of Poverty'' - Essay Example nationalist, Naseer’s dictatorial treatment with Syrian economic activity brought about the rebellion from army in 1959 and UAR (United Arab Republic) dissolved. UAR was a weak unification of Syria and Egypt as a result of western pressures for adopting neutral stance about Baghdad pact.1 Baathists were more aggressive in their control and army personnel gained more ground in party. Economic power was in the hands of ruling elite and shifting to military. Basthist party and Syria united apparently in 1958 but Hafiz al-Asad was also a part of this union. According to George; This unionist marriage was unhappy and in September 1961 it ended with the rightist putsch in Damascus. After 18 months of turmoil in the country†¦In 1966 the radicals staged an intra party coup. Syria’s resounding defeat by Israel in the June 1967 was, in which the Golan Heights were occupied, weakened the militant†¦The climax was another putsch stages by Asad, then defense minister, on 16 November 1970.2 Hafiz al-Asad exploited the 1967 defeat by Israel in order to unite Ba’ath part and military wing under Alawi clan, i.e, rural shi’a minority, but after Asad, it has been at the top of Syrian society. Ba’athist coup was encouraged initially but it showed little results; few banks and industry was nationalized, land reform extension and state established a monopoly in 1963.However, these steps were biased and to target elite to curb the anti-regime activities in 1964,and in case of land reforms, to bless Baathist coup origin, i.e., peasantry. For development, an intensive program was developed in which state investment was established to be the key driving force of economic activity in all sectors. Agriculture was focused in order to raise the living standards in rural Syria, and encouraged to run by state irrigation schemes and import substitution was boosted. Roads, railways construction were planned in collaboration with the Soviet Union and Eastern bloc with the help of

Monday, September 23, 2019

Gender Oppression Glossary Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Gender Oppression Glossary - Essay Example Marxist feminists see the Capitalist mode of production as the root cause of all gender inequality. The capitalist framework of the society, its mode of operation and production is determined as the ultimate cause of all gender inequality and oppression of women. The oppression of women is a part of the larger Class Oppression where the male dominated society suppresses the rights and freedom of the women folk. Engels - The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State written by Engels after Marx’s death serves as the back bone for the cause of dismantling capitalism and social and economical equality. It was Engels’s treatise on Marx’s analysis and understanding of the society and his comments on progressive US scholar Lewis Henry Morgan. A deep exploration of the human society, its inbuilt instincts of gender organisation, and the tendency to form a patriarchal society based on male domination is done in the book The Post Medieval Concept of Family and Marriage: Male Privilege A society is identified by its class framework, or in other words a society and its individuals are identified and heavily influenced by the system of classification of its people. The needs, opportunities and privileges given on the basis of factors like gender, social status, cast etc form a decisive factor in determining the behaviour and nature of society. In a patriarchal society that is governed by the laws of heterosexuality, deeming it to be main-stream and globally accepted, male privilege and male domination became an inevitable reality. The society is skewed in terms of gender equality considering that the modern, global society accepts a man to be the head of the house, taking all the important decisions (financial, legal, social etc), whereas the woman is not considered an equally partner. Gender oppression finds another channel of execution through the stark male domination in every area in the society, whether it is leading the family, or lead ing a cultural or social organisation, whether it is heading the work place or the government. According to Marxist feminist theory this is due to the root cause of capitalism and the capitalist mode of production. Some Marxist feminist theorists consider the nature of men to be the root cause of female oppression. Male privilege and the inequality in rights, opportunities, position, contribution and influence in society between male and female classes has been as old as division of society into classes. It has not existed since the beginning, but gradually gathered popularity and momentum through the introduction of a class based barbaric society. Along with the class society, private property and the state, the bourgeois family too has a distinct beginning. Male privilege is only as old as the division of the society into classes. Patriarchy Patriarchy as opposed to matriarchy is based on the concept of Male leadership of the household, where the title can be traced through male l ineage. The title and its inheritance by subsequent generations are of a man’s and from a man’s. This serves as the foundation of a patriarchal society. Patriarchy is ancient and dates back to primitive human society dominated by male power to hunt, fight, capture and colonise. Thus arose the system of a male dominated, patriarchal system of society where the male

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Ecology Lab Essay Example for Free

Ecology Lab Essay The ecosystem is composed of the producers, consumers, decomposers and the nonliving or abiotic components (Ecology, 1997). The producers are the plants that produce food through photosynthesis. The consumers have two types: herbivores or primary consumers and carnivores or secondary consumers. The herbivores are the animals that only eat plants while the carnivores are the animals that only eat meat. The animals that eat mixtures of plants and meat are called omnivores. Human beings are considered as omnivores. Fungi and bacteria are some of the decomposers in the ecosystem. The nonliving or abiotic components of the ecosystem are consisting of the dead organic matter and nutrients found in soil and water. What if all humans became vegetarians? Would it be beneficial to the earth or ecosystem? First of all, let me discuss the principle behind the food chain, food web and energy flow. â€Å"In a food chain, the sun’s energy is used by plants to make food. The plants are eaten by herbivores, which, in turn, are eaten by carnivores. Both plant and animal substances decompose when they die and return mineral substances to the soil where bacteria use them to provide carbon dioxide gas. Carbon dioxide and the sun’s energy then enter the chain again. † (Food Chains, 1992) But the situation in the ecosystem is not as simple as stated in the food chain so it is more advantageous to use the principle of food web. For example, a rat ate a grain from a plant, and then the rat was eaten by a snake. But the snake was also eaten by a honey bunger. The honey bunger serves as an intermediate link which is a higher level of predator than the snake. This makes food web more complicated. Also, energy is transferred in a food web. This transfer of energy in a food web is called energy flow (Energy Flow, 2008). Energy flow involves several trophic or feeding levels. When energy is passed on from one trophic level to another trophic, about 90% of the energy is lost due to respiration and some are being lost as heat in the environment. The top consumer of the food chain is the one who receives the less amount of energy. Energy in the food web is measured in terms of heat. The law of thermodynamics is also used to measure the energy lost and gain by the trophic levels. Another concept that can be useful in answering the question is the ecological pyramid. â€Å"An Ecological Pyramid (or trophic pyramid) is a graphical representation designed to show the biomass or productivity at each trophic level in a given ecosystem. Biomass pyramids show the abundance or biomass of organisms at each trophic level, while productivity pyramids show the production or turn-over in biomass. Ecological Pyramids begin with producers on the bottom and proceed through the various trophic levels, the highest of which is on top. † (Ecological pyramid, 2008) The trophic level with the highest number of population is the producer while the top most trophic level has the lowest number of population. Would it be beneficial if all humans became vegetarians? The above principles and information can be used to answer this question. It would not be beneficial if all humans will be vegetarians since this act might cause imbalances in the food web and in the ecosystem. Humans also contribute in the maintenance of the numbers of species in a given ecosystem. If humans will only eat plants, the population of the animals we are eating like cows, pigs and chickens will grow. Since these animals are herbivores or primary consumers, this will result to greater competition for foods derived from plants. The population of secondary consumers will be outnumbered by the primary consumers. This will in turn cause another growth in the population of primary consumers since the number of secondary consumers will not be enough to feed on the primary consumers. Again, this will cause disruption of the ecological pyramid. In terms of energy flow and thermodynamics, it is still not beneficial if all human beings will be vegetarians. Given with two scenarios: (a) humans feed directly on plants and (b) humans feed on animals like cows or chickens that also feed on food from plant sources, in what scenario can humans receive greater amount of energy? In the first scenario, humans are included in the trophic level next to producers which are the primary consumers while in the second scenario, humans are considered as secondary consumers. Also in the first scenario, the humans’ only source of energy is the producer which is the food from plant while in the second scenario; the humans’ sources of energy are the animals and the plants that were eaten by those animals. Even though 90% of the energy acquired by the animals that feed on plants is lost due to respiration, there is still a remainder of 10% that the human can receive when he/she will feed on those animals. Summing up and comparing all the energies received by humans in each scenario then we can say that humans can get a 10% higher amount of energy in the second scenario than in the first scenario. Like what was stated prior to this paragraph, the top most consumer of the food web who feed on plants will receive the least amount of energy. Also in the first scenario where humans feed directly on plant foods, lesser amounts of heat and carbon dioxide are released in the environment. In terms of ecosystem productivity, the humans can get higher net productivity when they act as secondary consumers than when they act as primary consumers. What is net productivity? â€Å"Net productivity is the amount of energy trapped in organic matter during a specified interval at a given trophic level less that lost by the respiration of the organisms at that level. † (Ecosystem productivity, 2004) Humans can indirectly acquire higher net productivity when they eat animals that feed on plant materials. Using all the arguments mentioned, one can conclude that it is not beneficial, for both humans and ecosystem, if all humans will be vegetarians. We must always bear in mind that all things in excess will not be advantageous or beneficial. References â€Å"Ecological pyramid†. 2008. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Ecological_pyramid â€Å"Ecology†. 1997. Funk and Wagnalls New Encyclopedia Vol. 9. 12 â€Å"Ecosystem productivity†. 2004. http://users. rcn. com/jkimball. ma. ultranet/BiologyPages/N/NetProductivity. html â€Å"Energy Flow†. 2008. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Energy_flow â€Å"Food chains†. 1992. The World of Animals. Australia: Regency Publishing Group. 9

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Lumbar Metastatic Disease Diagnosis

Lumbar Metastatic Disease Diagnosis Arlena Davis What additional historical information do you want to collect from the patient? Healthcare professionals are supposed to gather historical information from the patient when diagnosing lumbar pain. Gathering historical information ensures proper diagnosis of lumbar pain and treatment. The following historical information would be obtained from the patient. The doctor will determine whether the patient has had any spinal problems since birth. Also, the doctor will determine whether the patient has had lumbar pain before and any treatment. In addition, the physician will determine whether the lumbar pain was sudden or gradual. This is by asking the patient to describe how the pain began. Further, the patient will be required to state what increases or decreases the pain including rest or activity. Additionally, understanding the family history is vital in diagnosing lumbar pain. The health professional should determine if there is family history of lumbar pain. The doctor determines whether the patient is suffering from any disease that might cause the lumbar pain. Injuries and accidents can cause lumbar pain and the health professional should determine if the patient had an accident or injury. Wong,  D.A., Transfeldt, E., Macnab, I. (2007).  Macnab’s backache. Philadephia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins What additional physical examination should you complete immediately and why? Physical examination is vital when diagnosing lumbar pain. Additional physical examinations are required to determine whether the patient has lumbar pain or not. The patient will do several movements while sitting, lying down and standing. This will make it easy to assess muscular and sensory problems causing the pain. Palpation is critical in identifying the affected area. Palpation helps the doctor feel tenderness and alignment of joints. This helps identify the inflamed lumbar area. Also, examining the leg pulse as pain increases the pulse. General examination of legs and trunk is done to identify the causes of the lumbar pain. Straight leg testing and nerve tests are done to determine whether the patient symptoms are due to pressure on the nerves or nerve compression. Tollison, C.D., Satterthwaite, J.R., Tollison, J.W. (2002).  Practical pain management. Philadephia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins What differentials should you consider? A differential diagnosis is important when diagnosing lumbar pain as different diseases cause pain. Various diseases affecting the bladder, colon, abdomen aorta and kidney can cause pain. Therefore, different tests should be performed to rule out the diseases. Abdominal and pelvic ultrasounds are critical in ruling out the diseases. Clinical and neurological observations should be done to eliminate the diseases. CT, MRI, blood tests, urine tests, and complete blood tests are needed to differentiate different diagnoses. Beirman, R., Bull, P., Eaton, S.(2011). Cases in differential diagnosis for the physical and manipulative therapies. Australia: Elsiever Australia The clinical scenario suggests what diagnosis? The diagnosis shows that the patient has lumbar metastatic disease. The in house lumbar x-ray showed that lumbar vertebrae had lesions which are a sign for metastatic disease. The metastatic disease causes pain in the lumbar area. Metastatic disease occurs when cancer cells break away from a cancerous tumor and travel though the blood and lymph vessels to other regions including the lumbar vertebrae. The cancer cells settle in the lumbar vertebrae and start to grow and produce new tumors. The metastatic disease compresses or damages nerves and causes pain. Rabbani, S.A., Singh, G. (2007).  Bone metastasis: Experimental and clinical therapeutics. New York City: Springer Why does he have an elevated calcium and alkaline phosphatase? The patient has high levels of alkaline phosphate and calcium. He has alkaline phosphates of 850 and calcium of 11. The high levels of calcium and alkaline phosphates are due to the metastatic disease. Cancer cells affect the bones including lumbar vertebrae and damage them. Calcium is released into the blood as the cancer cells damage the bones. The level of calcium in the blood increases as more bones are damaged. The high levels of calcium in the blood lead to loss of appetite. The levels of alkaline phosphates increase as the damaged bones dissolve. Therefore, the high levels of alkali phosphates and calcium show that the lumbar vertebrae are damaged and have dissolved. The elevated levels of alkali phosphates can also be due to liver damage as the patient has hepatomegaly. Lipton, A et al. (2011). The Science and Practice of Bone Health in Oncology: Managing Bone Loss and Metastasis in Patients With Solid Tumors. J Natl Compr Canc Netw, s1-s30 Why does he have hepatomegaly and elevated ALT/AST? The patient has hepatomegaly which is the swelling of the liver. Cancer metastases cause the liver to swell. The patient has a swollen liver because of the metastatic disease. Cancer cells have spread to the liver and caused inflammation or swelling of the liver. Liver function tests are used to determine liver functioning or the condition of a patient’s liver. The tests include AST and ALT. The AST and ALT tests were done to determine whether the patient had liver damage. AST and ALT levels are raised if the patient has liver damage. The patient’s AST and ALT levels are 600 and 700 respectively. The AST and ATL levels can increase suddenly showing a sudden liver injury or gradually depicting continuing liver damage. Thus, the patient AST and ALT levels are high because he has liver injury caused by the metastatic disease. Wallach, J.B.(2007).  Interpretation of diagnostic tests. Philadephia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins What additional screening blood test can help you confirm your diagnosis? Why is it used? There are different blood tests that can be used to confirm metastatic disease diagnosis. Blood chemistries can be done. A blood test is done to determine the amount of calcium in the blood. Calcium dissolves in the blood after bones are damages and this increases calcium levels. The patient is said to have metastatic disease if he has abnormal levels of calcium(high levels).A blood test is done to determine the level of alkaline phosphates in the blood as high levels show metastatic disease. A complete blood count can also be done as patients with metastatic bone diseases have no enough red blood cells. Schwab, M. (2008).  Encyclopedia of cancer. New York City: Springer References Beirman, R., Bull, P., Eaton, S. (2011). Cases in differential diagnosis for the physical and manipulative therapies. Australia: Elsiever Australia Lipton, A et al. (2011). The Science and Practice of Bone Health in Oncology: Managing Bone Loss and Metastasis in Patients With Solid Tumors. J Natl Compr Canc Netw, s1-s30 Rabbani, S.A., Singh, G. (2007).  Bone metastasis: Experimental and clinical therapeutics. New York City: Springer Schwab, M. (2008).  Encyclopedia of cancer. New York City: Springer Tollison, C.D., Satterthwaite, J.R., Tollison, J.W. (2002).  Practical pain management. Philadephia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Wallach, J.B. (2007).  Interpretation of diagnostic tests. Philadephia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Wong, D.A., Transfeldt, E., Macnab, I. (2007).  Macnab’s backache. Philadephia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins

Friday, September 20, 2019

Subject Of Language And Identity

Subject Of Language And Identity I have chosen this subject of language and identity, which leads to the death of a language, if language dies. Language and identity comes under my course, part 1, under language and cultural context. On the 4th of February 2010, while browsing through BBCs website I stumbled upon a captivating and according to me a very sad article. It read last speaker of ancient language of Bo dies in India, Boa sr.s story saddened me, she died at the age of 85 and for almost thirty years she didnt have anyone to converse with in her native language. Imagine not being able to use English for thirty years, you loose the freedom to express in your first language. As a journalist I knew what it meant for the world to loose a language, its disheartening, in essence a piece of history and culture is lost, I believe it is as important to preserve and save a language as it is to save and preserve the environment, but everyone is not aware of the adverse affects language death can cause. As a journalist, I thought of it as my moral responsibility to throw light on language death and its adverse effects. Thus, I wrote this article and decided on publishing it in a newspaper as it would reach a larger group of people and educate them on why they should preserve their native language. Language death Approximately 7000 languages exist in todays world and this number is rapidly dwindling, is it a cause for concern? As globalization spreads around the world, it is natural that smaller communities would like to move out of their isolation and seek interaction with the rest of the world. The number of languages dying is sorrowful. People naturally tend to shift their language use due to globalization and they leave behind their native language if it is not spoken by a lot of people. Asking them to hold onto a language they do not want anymore and preserve it, just for the sake of linguists and not the community itself, it is a bit too much to ask for, isnt it?But theres actually more to it than what meets the eye. Why fight this? A national geographic study states that every 14 days a language dies. By 2100 more than half of the languages spoken on this earth may disappear, taking away with them a wealth of knowledge on world history, culture and natural environment. Language is the road map of a culture. It tells you where its people come from and where they are going. Rita Mae Brown This quote by the American writer Rita Mae Brown gives us an insight into why preserving a language is of importance. A language defines a culture, through the people who speak it. Every language has words that describe a particular cultural practice or idea, when translated into another language, the precise meaning might not come across. What we essentially lose is cultural heritage. The way of expressing the relationship with nature, with the world, it is also the way in which people express humor, their love, their life; most importantly communicating effectively with family is lost. Languages are living, breathing organisms holding connections that define a culture. When a language dies a culture is lost. Because of the close links language and identity share, if an individual or group thinks of their language as useless, they think of their identity as the same. This could have adverse effects; it could lead to depression, drug abuse and social disruption. And as parents no longer pass on their language to their children the connection between grandparents and children is lost which leads to traditional values not being handed on and theres a vacuum that remains where people for generations realize they have lost something. Many languages are in danger of extinction thathave rich oral cultures with stories, songs, and histories passed on from generation to generation, but with no particular written form. Much of what us humans know about nature is encoded in oral languages. For thousands of years now native groups have interacted closely with the natural world and have insightful understanding on local lands, plants, animals, and ecosystems. Many still are not documented by science itself. Therefore studying indigenous languages proves to be beneficial while learning about the environment and conservation. Sanskrit is one such ancient language that is loosing its prominence and its speakers decreasing everyday. It was said to be the mother of all languages. Sanskrit is not practically used and maybe that is one of reasons of its decline but I believe it should be conserved because of the traditional values it possesses and because of its richness in culture. Take for instance Arthashastra, it is an Indian treatise written in Sanskrit which deals with statecraft, economic policy and military strategy it was written all the way back in 4th century BC. These concepts are not new and modern, they have been around for a long time now, if we do not conserve Sanskrit we will loose all of this valuable knowledge and also lose a piece of history. All is not lost for those who want the smaller languages to survive. Another such language dying out is Palenquero. Palenquero is thought to the one and only Spanish-based Creole language in Latin America. Fewer than half of the community speaks it. It is spoken in the village of San Basilio De Palenque. Many children and young adults understand the language and pronounce a few phrases, which is a great sign as the village of San Basilio De Palenque is trying to preserve its language and spread it, the villages resilience is commendable. And other communities whose languages are close to extinction should look at them as an example. Why do languages die out though? Throughout history, the languages of powerful groups and imperial countries have spread while the languages of the smaller cultures and groups have become extinct. This happens due to official language policies and also the allure of speaking a highly prestigious global language such as English. These trends explain why a small country like Bolivia would have more of language diversity rather than a big country like the USA. As big languages spread, children whose parents speak a comparatively smaller language tend to grow up learning the more dominant language. Those children may never learn the smaller language, or they may just forget it as it falls out of use. These trends have occurred throughout history, but what is alarming and worrying is the rate at which languages are disappearing, it has significantly accelerated over the recent years. Associations and initiatives such as Enduring voices, Living tongue, and the endangered languages project by Google are trying to preserve language and that is a sign of hope. The organizations that are involved and that have come up with these ideas are national geographic and Google. The death of a language is an indication of a human crisis: the loss of a store of wisdom, the sense of a community being thrown away. As we try to stop global warming and save the environment, we should also try and save our languages, as they are an integral part of our heritage.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Was Henry Vs Victory a Miracle? Essay -- Henry IV Henry V Essays

We few, we happy few, we band of brothers. For he today that sheds his blood with me Shall be my brother; be he ne'er so vile, This day shall gentle his condition. And gentlemen in England now abed Shall think themselves accursed they were not here, And hold their manhoods cheap whiles any speaks That fought with us upon Saint Crispin's day." These words, spoken by Henry V in Shakespeare's play of the same name, reflected the pride the English took in the memory of a glorious victory and, by connecting the Battle of Agincourt with a holy day, helped reinforce the popular belief that Providence played a role in England's fortunes during that historic battle. The ensuing bloody and chaotic clash seemed proof enough of divine intervention, because Henry's troops rose up to defeat a French army almost four times as large. This rousing truimph during the Hundred Years War ranks alongside the rout of the Spanish Armada and the Battle of Britain as one of England's "Finest Hours," but it was not quite the miraculous event that Shakespeare and his contemporaries related. Henry's army posed a much more formidable threat to the French than simple numbers suggest. Given the circumstances, a British victory was nearly inevitable. The Hundred Years War, fought intermittently from 1337 to 1453, erupted over the Plantagenet kings' rather weak claim to the French throne, which they based on Edward II's marriage to Isabella, daughter of France's King Philip IV. Although that claim had grown rather stale by the time Henry V rose to power, he pressed it through force of arms. In a series of brilliant military campaigns, he conquered much of France, and married Cath... ...he Battle of Agincourt was King Henry's decision to execute his French prisoners during the fighting. At the time, such blatantly brutal practice was unheard of. Henry has borne the harsh judgment of history for his actions. In the heat of battle, Henry noticed that one segment of his army had been caught off-guard and was in serious danger. The only soldiers available to reinforce his line were those guarding prisoners. To reassign them meant risking the prisoners' escape, or worse, having them turn on their captors. Henry chose the more ruthless but less risky course and ordered the prisoners to be executed. It was a decision borne of necessity during battle, rather than personal malice, but one which nevertheless inflamed the French to greater resistance and set the stage for further rounds of slaughter in the seemingly endless Anglo-French wars.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

The Genealogy of Jesus Christ Essay -- New Testament, Matthew 1:2-17

The New Testament includes four Gospels that encompass a variety of narrative accounts relating to Jesus Christ. The Gospel of Matthew; is sequentially placed as the first book within the New Testament. Furthermore, it is a canonical account of the life of Jesus, and is recognized as one of the synoptic Gospels. These accounts are divided into twenty eight chapters that appear in the form of a parable, proverb, law, or miracle story found within modern day poetry, letters, or literary tracts. Moreover, each narrative account possesses influential and intellectual material that attracts readers to examine it further. However, out of the four Gospels, Matthew’s is the one that encompasses the most amount of text that bestows an array of narrative accounts of Jesus to observe. In Matthew’s scriptures he takes Jesus’ fulfillments of the Jewish prophecies into consideration and uses it to refute the Jewish belief that Jesus of Nazareth is not the Messiah. This paper will explore the pericope found in Matthew 1:2-17 that illustrates the genealogy of Jesus Christ. The purpose of the passage is to demonstrate that Jesus is indeed the Messiah, which is a dominant theme throughout this particular Gospel. The above passage was chosen to obtain a greater perspective on the genealogy of Jesus Christ, through further examining Matthew’s tactic of incorporating Jesus into various Jewish traditions and prophecies. This passage is particularly interesting because Matthew functions as a bridge between the two Testaments, by showing how prophetic â€Å"fulfillment citations† from the Hebrew Bible were fulfilled, in the person of Jesus therefore proving he is the Messiah .The book of Matthew is a complicated Gospel; as a result, it is vital for its ... ...s view Jesus as the Messiah and continue to worship him as the foundation of Christianity. As a result, it is evident that Christianity and Judaism possess different beliefs. Perhaps over time the two faiths will fuse together and allow the people to become unified and share the same beliefs towards the true Messiah. Bibliography Batten Alicia, Introduction to the New Testament. Sudbury: University of Sudbury, 2011. David S.Ariel â€Å"The Messiah† from What Do Jews Believe. New York: Schocken Books, 1996. Coogan, Michael D. The New Oxford Annotated Bible. New York: Oxford, 2007. Filson ,V. Floyd The Gospel According to St. Matthew. London: A. and C. Black Limited, 1960. Keener, Craig S. A Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew. Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans Pub., 1999. Print. Saldarini, Anthony Commentary On The Bible. Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans: 2003. The Genealogy of Jesus Christ Essay -- New Testament, Matthew 1:2-17 The New Testament includes four Gospels that encompass a variety of narrative accounts relating to Jesus Christ. The Gospel of Matthew; is sequentially placed as the first book within the New Testament. Furthermore, it is a canonical account of the life of Jesus, and is recognized as one of the synoptic Gospels. These accounts are divided into twenty eight chapters that appear in the form of a parable, proverb, law, or miracle story found within modern day poetry, letters, or literary tracts. Moreover, each narrative account possesses influential and intellectual material that attracts readers to examine it further. However, out of the four Gospels, Matthew’s is the one that encompasses the most amount of text that bestows an array of narrative accounts of Jesus to observe. In Matthew’s scriptures he takes Jesus’ fulfillments of the Jewish prophecies into consideration and uses it to refute the Jewish belief that Jesus of Nazareth is not the Messiah. This paper will explore the pericope found in Matthew 1:2-17 that illustrates the genealogy of Jesus Christ. The purpose of the passage is to demonstrate that Jesus is indeed the Messiah, which is a dominant theme throughout this particular Gospel. The above passage was chosen to obtain a greater perspective on the genealogy of Jesus Christ, through further examining Matthew’s tactic of incorporating Jesus into various Jewish traditions and prophecies. This passage is particularly interesting because Matthew functions as a bridge between the two Testaments, by showing how prophetic â€Å"fulfillment citations† from the Hebrew Bible were fulfilled, in the person of Jesus therefore proving he is the Messiah .The book of Matthew is a complicated Gospel; as a result, it is vital for its ... ...s view Jesus as the Messiah and continue to worship him as the foundation of Christianity. As a result, it is evident that Christianity and Judaism possess different beliefs. Perhaps over time the two faiths will fuse together and allow the people to become unified and share the same beliefs towards the true Messiah. Bibliography Batten Alicia, Introduction to the New Testament. Sudbury: University of Sudbury, 2011. David S.Ariel â€Å"The Messiah† from What Do Jews Believe. New York: Schocken Books, 1996. Coogan, Michael D. The New Oxford Annotated Bible. New York: Oxford, 2007. Filson ,V. Floyd The Gospel According to St. Matthew. London: A. and C. Black Limited, 1960. Keener, Craig S. A Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew. Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans Pub., 1999. Print. Saldarini, Anthony Commentary On The Bible. Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans: 2003.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Dabur Brand Revie

The brand name Dabur is derived from the words ‘Da' for ‘Daktar’ or ‘Doctor’ and ‘bur' from Burman. From those humble beginnings, the company has grown into India's leading manufacturer of consumer healthcare, personal care and food products. Over its 125 years of existence, the Dabur brand has stood for goodness through a natural lifestyle. An umbrella name for a variety of products, ranging from hair care to honey, Dabur has consistently ranked among India’s top brands. Its brands are built on the foundation of trust that a Dabur offering will never cause anyone slightest of harm.The trust levels that this brand enjoys are phenomenally high. Dabur had a turnover of approximately US$ 750 Million (Rs. 3390. 9 Crore FY 09-10) ;amp; Market Capitalisation of over US$ 3. 5 Billion (Rs 15500 Crore), Ner income of : (INR) 425 Crore (2008-09)with brands like Dabur Amla, Dabur Chyawanprash, Vatika, Hajmola and Real. The company has kept an eye on new generations of customers with a range of products that cater to a modern lifestyle, while managing not to alienate earlier generations of loyal customers. The company's growth rate rose from 10% to 40% Dabur Foods, a subsidiary of Dabur India is expecting to grow at 25%.Its brands of juices, namely, Real and Active, together make it the market leader in the Fruit Juice Category Value: Mass market value For money The brand trunaround† why? Overall slow down in FMCG Stiff competition To target young india – largest consumer Modernize old brand equity-â€Å" intangible asset† Dabur also has reinvented the mother logo Enter new category; innovate offerings Repositioning as FMCG company Moved away from Umbrella branding strategy Retaining Dabur as corporate brand identity Dabur’s New Brand Architecture 5 Power Brands Umbrella brand for juice and other foods; aimed at p market consumer Product to be launched is Lemon Juice: Branded fruit beverage market in I ndia is estimated to be worth Rs. 1,200 crore (nectars, drinks and juices combined)The fruit drink market Juice accounts 30%,Nectar:10%, Fruit drinks:60% COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS Pepsi co: Nimbooz has grown 29% Coca Cola : Minute Maid Nimbu Fresh- pulp based drink Parle : LMN this has grown 30% Market size of Lemon Juice in India in Organized sector: The unpackaged nimbu paani market in India is very large; to put it in perspective, it is twice the size of the total carbonated soft drinks industry. India’s Parle Agro, the name behind the LMN brand which launched a year ago, has outperformed the market growing 30 per cent. Of the 600m-case juice market, lemon juice drinks have a 44 per cent share. According to an industry report 120bn litres of beverages are consumed annually in India with 55 per cent of sales of Indian soft drinks during the summer months of March to May, and companies are keen to maximise growth in this season.If next year’s summer is as hot as this one, a nimbu paani drink or three will definitely be in order Target market: 1) Primary and secondary market SEC A and SEC B * Recreational * Fitness * Health Lifestyle * Sports Primary Market: * Teens – More experimental * Youth – Experimental and more buying power Working People who travels a lot * Secondary Market Secondary market: Travel Industry – Airlines, Railways and Local Transport Systems ,Recreational – Movie Theatres, Malls, Amusement Parks, school, collages, hotels, restaurants Market Segmentation: * Metropolitan Cities, major cities of the states, and towns. * Density of Area: Urban, Semi-urban, Rural. Climate: Tropical * Age – 8 and above * Users perceive Lemon juice as a healthy drink. * Users drink fruit juice as a refreshing alternative to carbonated drinks.Users willingly spend on products related to health and lifestyle. Users enjoy Lemon juice not only as a means of healthy life, but as an intrinsically enjoyable Marketing strategy of Dabur: Dabur should reinforce the authentic â€Å"homemade† taste through aggressive marketing campaigns and have tried to appeal to the increasingly health-conscious Indian consumer by making them without artificial ingredients. Product Type: lomon Juice Features: Lemon Juice is a 100 percent Lemon juice which will be produced and marketed by the Dabur ltd. Brand Name: Lemon Juice Product Life Cycle: Our product lie in introduction period Low sales * High costs per customer * Negative profits * Innovator customers * Few competitors Objective: to create awareness and trial * Offer a basic product * Price at cost-plus * Selective distribution * Awareness – dealers and early adopters * Induce trial via heavy sales promotion * Place Distribution Channel Product location availability Modes of transportation * Pricing Provide Lucrative discounts, deals and schemes Adopt sales oriented objective Have one price policy [email  protected] 8 Rs/ 200Ml * Promotion Promotiona l Tactics Provide free samples in the market for the brand awareness Advertising:To our target audience by using the message showing a glass full of Lemon juice â€Å"Drink this much every day â€Å" Tie up promotional strategy with: PVR, In film advertising Hero Honda: Hero Honda Motors Limited, based in Delhi, India is a joint venture between the Hero Group of India and Honda of Japan[2][3] It has been referred to as the world's biggest manufacturer of 2-wheeled motorized vehicles since 2001, when it produced 1. 3 million motorbikes in a single year. During the fiscal year 2008-09, the company has sold 3. 28 million bikes and the net profit of the company stood at Rs. 1281. 7 crore, up 32% from the previous fiscal year. verification needed][3] Hero Honda has been the largest two wheeler company in the world for nine consecutive years. The company had a market share of 41. 35% in the year 2008-2009 and over a 25 year span it has crossed the 15 million unit milestone. Hero Honda s ells more two wheelers than the second, third and fourth placed two-wheeler companies put together. [4] The company's most popular model is the Hero Honda Splendor, which is the world's largest-selling motorcycle, selling more than one million units per year Hero† is the brand name used by the Munjal brothers for their flagship company Hero Cycles Ltd.A joint venture between the Hero Group and Honda Motor Company was established in 1984 as the Hero Honda company,India. During the 1980s, the company introduced motorcycles that were popular in India for their fuel economy and low cost. A popular advertising campaign based on the slogan ‘Fill it – Shut it – Forget it' that emphasised the motorcycle's fuel efficiency helped the company grow at a double-digit pace since inception. Hero Honda has three manufacturing facilities based at Dharuhera and Gurgaon in Haryana and at Haridwar in Uttarakhand.These plants together are capable of churning out 3. 9 million bi kes per year. [citation needed] Hero Honda's has a large sales and service network with over 3,000 dealerships and service points across India. Hero Honda's customer loyalty program,[clarification needed] the Hero Honda Passport Program, claims to be one of the largest programs of its kind in the world with over 3 million members Launch of New Prodcut: Honda Cart: A three Wheeler Cart will be a . 75 ton truck in the commercial vehicle segment which is dominated by large trucks. It can be called India's next generation mini truck .The sub one ton loads were transported by the three wheeler goods carriers. Although the quality and performance of these three wheelers are less than desirable there was still huge demand for these vehicles. It is this market where TATA Ace is the only leading competitor . It is the transportation at the † last mile† market that Ace has captured. Honda Cart will have all the qualities of a winner. It will be cute, the engine would be good inter ms of mileage and performance, the comfort factor can very much there and more over it is a Truck and not an Auto.Priced competitively at 2. 00 lakh to 2. 20 lakh, which is below Ace is a value proposition that no one can refuse. The brand will launched at a point where there was a need for transportation of good speedily and conveniently and in a cost effective manner. Need for the Honda Cart: Honda Cart will be cost-effective means for local transport of small cargo in the long run. Previously, customers had to incur additional charges by renting vehicles with a much larger payload for small cargo movements. Due to pradhan mantri gramin sadak yojana , Road onnectivity is expected to greatly improve in rural areas ?It is envisaged that higher tonnages vehicles will be not allowed in cities ?In both the cases, all last mile distributing will be covered by large vehicles ?The exciting production in this category is cumbersome , coupled with safety, pollution ;amp; comfort etc.. issue s Market Research : To understand the potential customer better. It found that there were two types of customers for Honda Cart : cost sensitive customers, and others who valued return on investment (ROI).The company targeted ROI customers who were willing to pay a higher price but wanted low operating costs. Comparative analysis :The Honda Cart would provide excellent economy with oil change required only for every 10,000 km when compared to three wheelers which required it for every 2,500 km. Evne TATA ACE required at every 9,000KM. The vehicle traveled at a top speed of 70 km per hour and had a mileage of 20 km per liter with a high payload capacity in compare to TATA ACE which has speed of 65 km per hour and 18km per liter as mileage. This enabled the owners to make more trips in less time.Bajaj Auto, Force Motors, Eicher, Piaggio and Ashok Leyland are very much on their way to entering the one-ton four-wheeler space. † The official further added, â€Å"Players like Eiche r and Swaraj Mazda, which are already present in the 1. 5-ton truck space, will now shift their focus to one ton. † Product: Honda Cart. PLC- Entry stage. Brand Name: Honda Cart Price: 2. 00Lakh-2. 20Lakhs Place : Tier II and III cities. Rural and semi urban. Promotion: The company could offer a range of additional accessories such as vehicle protection system, music systems and even Ganesha idols.Apart from the hygiene quality Honda will also look at the aspects of delight and value enhancers * Giving one Honda cart in free in large villages and in big town give one Honda cart per free per 5 km sq feet area to goods carrier * Reduce pollutants as compared to 3 wheeler from 21 % to 40% Market scenario: TATA ACE has captured 65% of the small commercial vechile segment Target Segment: The target segment are those who want to upgrade from these three wheelers and one who carry/ upload tons of goods