Monday, December 30, 2019

The Mythology Of The Mesopotamian Civilization - 1233 Words

Mesopotamian civilization holds the title for oldest religion, but really what they had was what we call today, mythology. It is the first record we have of any religion. Everything they did was to please and pacify the gods so that they could go through their lives without any unexpected events. They believed that there was a god for different things such as the sun, love, death, storm and wind. They relied on the gods to control natural disasters. When catastrophes happened it was because something had angered one of the gods. They used their religion to connect the dots between nature and a higher power than themselves. Mesopotamians saw gods at work in every aspect of nature and believed every human effort was meant to serve the†¦show more content†¦When the two brothers entered the Cedar Forest, they are terrified. It is very unlikely that they would have lived through the fight with Humbaba if Shamash had not sent thirteen winds to immobilize the monster. All areas of life were consumed with the gods and what they wanted. The Mesopotamians considered it a sign to know that they were doing something wrong when a sudden incident happens. The priests and kings could not make an important decision without first running it by the gods to see if it fit in with their agenda. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, one of the greatest works of literature steming from Mesopotamian culture, Gilgamesh and his friend Enkidu have to ask for permission from the gods first before they can start their journey to kill the beast of the Cedar Forest named Humbaba. About 2700 to 2000 BC, a literary tradition developed in Sumer, one in which left an enduring imprint on the people around them and after. The greatest Mesopotamian literature, The Epic of Gilgamesh, became the forerunner of the Genesis account of the Great Flood. The gods sent the flood to destroy the people because of their continuous babble. But they warned Utnapishtim to build a boat with specific dimensions, this saved him and his family. The human race began again through him. The gods had ultimate control and could end humanity whenever they wanted. Mesopotamian worldview was pessimistic. Hospitality was shown

Sunday, December 22, 2019

Possible Solutions to Poverty Essay - 1529 Words

Solving Poverty There are two main explanations to poverty, the cultural and structural. Sociologists mostly use the structural causes to explain the poverty in America. The cultural issue puts more fault and cause on the individual and the â€Å"culture† they create—making it seems like a repetitive cycle. Nonetheless, poverty is a very complex issue, even though culture and the individual do play a part, there is much more to it and thus the structural causes explanation comes in. With even the causations and explanation being so complex the solution must also be multi-faceted and flexible—being able to conform in many different situations and settings. Looking at history and seeing how others have faced the issue of poverty in their†¦show more content†¦For example, at one point of time the northern states in the U.S. where known for their textile mills. However, when labor fees (payments, insurance, etc.) became too expensive for the companies the y started to outsource, now most textiles are imported or produced in other countries. Even though, like in Massachusetts, some of these former mills were turned into high-tech industries in the 1980’s—creating the Massachusetts miracle—they didn’t support nearly the same amount of employees. Also these employees were most educated technicians and programmers, so it was not open to blue-collar workers. Poverty is a very complex social issue and there can’t only be one explanation. The structural causes explanation puts more faults on institutions—governments and companies. The cultural explanation puts too much fault in the individual. Whereas society is an amalgamation of both, of course culture affects a poor person in a different form then an upper middle class or rich person. The example being a person raised on the streets learns different skills then someone in a upper-middle class suburb thus effecting their future careers—comm unication skills, work ethics, etc. Nevertheless this doesn’t nearly explain the reason this poverty culture was made, this where the structural causes comes in. Islam also views the causations and explanations of poverty in a multipart manner and ratherShow MoreRelatedCauses of American Poverty and Possible Solutions Essay1582 Words   |  7 PagesPoverty is not a simple issue. You cannot ask a question about poverty and get one universal response. There are many conflicting ideas about what poverty is, and more importantly, where it comes from. The make-up of American society shows that so much in life can depend on one’s family. Having opportune circumstances can land people jobs, but having the opposite can also perpetuate the depression and reality of poverty for others. When people have reasons not to seize their days, they might sinkRead MoreThe Problem Of Global Poverty1609 Words   |  7 PagesPoverty is one of the largest dilemmas plaguing the world today. Solutions to solving the global issue of poverty are constantly debated, as world leaders try to find the best possible approach. However, in order to work towards solving the problem of global poverty, we must first identify the key cause. The main source of global poverty is the inaccessibility to food as a necessary biological need, otherwise known as world hunger. Food is necessary in order to live. It provides fuel for basic biologicalRead MorePoverty As A Social Problem796 Words   |  4 PagesPoverty Name: Institutional affiliation: â€Æ' Introduction Author Browning Cagney (2003), defines poverty as a state of inadequate resources and low living standards that cannot cater to basic human requirements. 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What is the cause of world poverty? What would this do to the American economy? America’s economy must be a priority to Americans when it comes to solving the issues of world poverty. Utilitarian philosophers, like PeterRead MoreTaking a Brief Look at Poverty in Egypt Essay1704 Words   |  7 PagesPoverty In Egypt Poverty is not only affecting poor ones but the whole society is totally affected by it. The rate if poverty actually depends on the country and its condition, the more the country is corrupted the more the poverty increases, thats why in the most developed countries the rate of poverty becomes too lower than the developing ones. Being a poor person means being deprived of the basic needs to live as a human being in any society and thats why according to human rights there shouldRead MoreEssay on We Must Raise the Minimum Wage1615 Words   |  7 Pageshour and works 40 hours a week, will earn about $14,000 per year. The Federal government deemed that the poverty line is anyone who makes less than $17,000 a year (â€Å"Federal Minimum†). Therefore anyone that makes minimum wage lives below the poverty line. As president Obama said in his state of address, In the wealthiest nation on earth, no one who works full-time should have to live in poverty† (â€Å"Federal Minim um†). This essay will examine the problem of low minimum wage and explore ways to resolveRead MorePoverty Can Be Defined As The State Of Being Inferior Quality Essay1147 Words   |  5 Pages2016 Inevitableness of Poverty Poverty can be defined as the state of being inferior in quality or, the more popular definition, poor. If examined closely poverty can be found everywhere, in every nation, every city and society. To the world, poverty seems inevitable, however what if it s not? What if? Doubt may fill any sane person at this moment, however through research and several economist poverty has been deemed as avoidable. To avoid poverty, the causes of poverty must first be examined

Saturday, December 14, 2019

Renaissance Architecture as the Pinnacle of Genius Or Brunelleschi’s Dome Free Essays

Architecture is the evolution of beauty in the fourth dimension. Art has continuously been about the creation of something beautiful, intrepid, and ingenious. Although there are many great art movements such as Baroque, Pop Art, Gothic, Avant-Guard, none are more striking in architecture as that of the Renaissance era. We will write a custom essay sample on Renaissance Architecture as the Pinnacle of Genius Or Brunelleschi’s Dome or any similar topic only for you Order Now With the Renaissance convalescence to beauty, the color combination and the presence of the classical nude incorporated into a lot of the decor, it is with the Renaissance art era that art history was witness to the best possible architecture. The following essay will seek to prove this point using the geniuses of the Renaissance period and using their works as examples of this thesis. The Renaissance took its cue from the elegant forms of architecture and beauty from the Greeks and Romans. The idea of symmetry and shapes and elegance are staple features in Renaissance architecture. Thus, a viewer can see a lot of Rome represented in the Renaissance architecture such as columns, pediments, arches and domes. It was through Vitruvius’s writings on architecture that inspired many Renaissance artists to embrace the Roman ideal of beauty, harmony, and symmetry (Architecture in Renaissance Italy paragraph one). This is Vitruvius’s idea of symmetry as is presented in Renaissance architecture and conceptualized by Vitruvius in the human body, The measurement pertaining to the body being designated by headlengths is emphasized by Vitruvius in this manner, â€Å"For the human body is so designed by nature that the face, from the chin to the top of the forehead and the lowest roots of the hair, is a tenth part of the whole height; the open hand from the wrist to the tip of the middle finger is just the same†¦The other members, too, have their own symmetrical proportions, and it was by employing them that the famous painters and sculptors of antiquity attained to great and endless renown† (72). Some of the famous architects of the Renaissance era included Michelangelo, Brunelleschi, Battista Alberti and Palladio. Each had their own style and power to not only engineer great feats of architectural beauty but to also bring forth their vision of classical Roman design with symmetr y as the focal point. Though Vitruvius speaks of symmetry his nature of the term also gives leeway, â€Å"Therefore, since nature has designed the human body so that its members are duly proportioned to the frame as a whole, it appears that the ancients had good reason for their rule, that in perfect buildings the different members must be in exact symmetrical relations to the whole general scheme† (73). This is especially seen in Brunelleschi’s brilliant masterpiece the dome of the Florence Cathedral or duomo as the Italians call it. The genius of the duomo was that it is a dome built within a dome. Bruniselleschi realized the weight issue of this dome, and thought that another structure to hold most of the weight would allow for the architecture to last longer without future engineering. Along with the genius of building this dome within a dome, Brunelleschi also used less material at the top of the dome where the oculus is located in order for the issue of weight to have less of a detrimental effect on the design, â€Å"As the total weight of the structure was thereby lightened, he could dispense with the massive and costly wooden trusswork required by the older method of construction† (Janson 1997, 419). Among Brunelleschi’s other major accomplishments and contributions to architecture is he renewal of the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian columns in their proper places. Another recognized accomplishment of Brunelleschi is his system of proportions; although his architecture seems simple to the layman, his intricacies lie within his use of appropriate measurement inducing harmony in his overall structure such as the Ospedale degli Innocenti. This modular cube building is pristine in its measurements between columns, and the height and space are especially p roportioned (Architecture in Renaissance Italy paragraph two). There is a definite sense of these elements intermingling in architecture so much so that the physical is being eclipsed by the virtual and when this happens the most important element of architecture which will lead the evolution is light. The Renaissance was an era of individuals. The art movement occurred in the 1400s at which time the world was succumbing to great travesties. The one hundred years war was happening, the bubonic plague had killed at least 50% of the population among such countries as France, Germany and England, but Italy was spared. Due to Italy’s political system, which is a series of city republic states with not king, no true peasant class, and so there is room for social mobility, and capitalism has made the culture a commercial society. Merchants, such as the Medici’s, ran this commercial society and all of these circumstances put together gives way for the Renaissance, â€Å"In 1419, while he was working out the final plans for the Cathedral dome, Brunelleschi received his first opportunity to create buildings entirely of his own design. It came from the head of the Medici family, one of the leading merchants and bankers of Florence, who commissioned him to add a sacristy to the Romanesque church of S. Lorenzo† (Janson 1997, 419). . In order for artists to have observed the world around them, leisure time must have been pursued and because Italy did not so entirely succumb to the great plague, the entire culture was left to flourish. They flourished in everything, mostly art. This era of individuals allowed for self-made millionaires who would commission artists to create whatever they wanted. One of the main contributors to the Renaissance was the Church. The ability of a Renaissance artist to create and invent hinged on the indulgence of the commissioner. Thus, many great religious art works were also the focal point of the artist. , and so, by observing the world around them Renaissance artists created a plethora of religious structures. By seeing the world around them and inventing necessary objects with which to engage in that world or to improve life, Renaissance artists proved that invention was key in discovering the world. Thus, the Renaissance did not only give the world great art, but the artistic genius and fortitude to create great monuments and inventions. By simple observation, artists such as Brunelleschi could give the world new forms of sculpture, architecture, and design implementations involving grand scale construction. Observation is the key to artistic genius, and it is through observation that art and invention collide. The genius of Brunelleschi was able to flourish because of religion. His work on the duomo was not limited to just the architecture, but the engineering as well, â€Å"Instead of having building materials carried up on ramps to the required level, he designed hoisting machines† (Janson 1997, 419). Thus, not only was architecture thriving but also other avenues of art such as engineering. It was financial freedom which lead to the greatness of the duomo, and Brunelleschi’s stamp in art history. How to cite Renaissance Architecture as the Pinnacle of Genius Or Brunelleschi’s Dome, Papers

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Sustainable Cocoa Production Shortage

Question: Discuss about the Sustainable Cocoa Production Shortage. Answer: Introduction The topic of world cocoa shortage is making headlines, alarming the chocolate lovers as well as the chocolate business owners. The growth of chocolate is constantly declining and this is worrying the cocoa farmers and the business companies who deal with chocolate. From Peru, Mexico, Brazil to Ghana, Nigeria, Indonesia and Malaysia, this crisis is faced by every country. Taking this alarming fact into account, the cocoa farmers are trying their best to tackle the situation. Apart from the farmers, business owners are now taking the advice and suggestions of the scientists, as they believe science can resolve the issue by finding some alternative, a potential substitute of cocoa. Thus, the chief objective of the assignment is to present an article concerning the various internal and external factors which are responsible for the shortage of cocoa growth. With the help of the assignment, it will be possible to assess the steps which can be taken to counteract this situation in an effec tive manner. PESTLE analysis on World Cocoa Shortage The PESTLE analysis is conducted in order to know the various external factors due to which the production of cocoa has considerably declined. Political: Political factors indicates that certain rules and regulation needs to be maintained by the Hershey company concerning the place where it is conducting its business. For example, the company has to oblige to the norms and the regulations made by the Dominican Republic, if the company wishes to import cocoa from this region. Mexico, on the other hand, is suffering from excessive drug dealing which is affecting the present generation of the company (PICK et al. 2015, p.204). As a result, the strict law needs to be followed in trading and business, however, this has put the company in a fix as the rules of trading often get very harsh and problematic. As a result, the company faces trouble to do business with this region. Economical: The problem of the poor economy is really a cause of concern which acts as one of the reasons leading to a shortage of cocoa growth. Taking the case of Dominican Republic, lack of strong economy leads to low productivity, the opportunity of farmers to get professional training for cocoa farming is not present, affecting the production rate. The condition of Ghana and Nigeria in terms of economy is quite deplorable, which is affecting the cocoa production rate of these regions. Another crucial factor, in Ghana the money earned by farmers is meagre, negligible compared to the amount of labour they give, leading to loss of farming in the process (Harris, 2016, p.10). Social: In many places such as Dominican Republican, lack of proper labour is visible, however in spite of this, women employment is still not encouraged in many areas. It is as if it is the custom of that women should not work even when they are perfectly able to walk. The good news is that, in the contemporary times, women section of the population are encouraged to do work. In spite of this positive scenario, they still need to go a long way, such as they need to have education in order to have the necessary idea of farming cocoa (Horne, 2015, p.6). Technological: This factor looks at the development aspect in terms of possessing improved technologies. In many places, technologies are not properly used, or rather many workers do not know usage and advantage of technology. Brazil, for instance, has reported a visible fall in its production due to its inconsistent climatic condition. The country does not have the knowledge or scope of proper technology which 0can enable them to protect and increase their rate of cocoa production (Lebailly and Ahouissou, 2015, p.390). Legal: Various policies often act as barriers to effective production. Prices of chocolate beans are soaring high; on the other hand, no policy is made concerning the well-being of farmers of cocoa production, affecting the company as well as the poor farmers (Ouya, 2014, p.29). Environmental: This factor has become one of the major reason for the cocoa shortage. Due to excessive drought, rainfall, Dominican Republic, Ghana, Nigeria, Peru, Mexico are losing much of their cocoa productivity. The climate has become unsuitable for cocoa production in many places which need to be considered. The company need to take help from science and farmers as well to tackle this problem (Stuart, 2015, p.55). Porter's five force analysis of Hershey's chocolate production: On being subjected to analysis of Hershey chocolate company it can be necessarily found that various determining factors encompassing the internal and external forces are conducted. Being a member of the commission of Hershey it is the responsibility to assess the growing problem of shortage in a development of cocoa in the world which can be identified through the application of the Porters five forces analysis. This is considered as one of the most effective methods to assess the areas that can significantly contribute towards the problem identified in the present scenario. The world is faced with the global issue of having the shortage in cocoa production throughout the world (Brew, 2014, p.23). The reasons working behind them can be effectively analysed through analysing the forces working upon one of the leading chocolate companies concerning the world basis. The external factors which encompass the five forces as postulated by Porter primarily focuses upon the fact that increased competition in the market leading to a formation of one of the major reasons for the growth of the problem thus addressed. Threats of new entrance: The food and beverage industry as it is known is one of the most profit-making industries in the global arena. The new entrances in this industry have to face a lot of struggle to battle up their position in the market with the existing companies. The market penetration, in this case, becomes extremely difficult on their part. The establishment with a growth oriented inclination is complicated. To deal with long-established companies such as Hershey the company needs to make their products exclusive and attractive enough to draw the attention of the customers (Mighty, 2017, p.72). Large procedural methods need to be followed by manufacturing the products. Government policies and regulations need to be fulfilled along with proper certification from the FDA before entering into the chocolate industry. Although the new entrances may not prove to be that strong in terms of the established companies as that of Hershey, but the existing companies do get affected in some aspects to share a compromised sales outcome than in the absence of such companies. Threats of substitute goods: Concerning the current scenario of the market, most of the products especially in the food and beverage industry have an easy substitute available to grab the attention of the customers. The products of chocolate are seen to be replicated both in their packaging as well as contents for deceiving the customers with a comparatively lower cost and feasibility approach. They may not primarily win the faith and trust of the people being all new in the market (Wessel and Quist-Wessel, 2015, p.5). But through the process of extensive promotional strategies and strong marketing plans may be able to establish their place in the market gradually with the passage of time. The more the products become acceptable to the consumers, the greater becomes the threat among the long-established companies such as Hershey. Thus the substitutes in the market tend to have a relatively strong impact on the company under consideration in a negative manner. This also counts as a si gnificant measure for the emerging shortage in the cocoa industry due to the increasing production of diverse agents and companies. Bargain power of suppliers: Hershey is seen to adapt a non-compromising attitude in terms of using products contents for a preparation of their goods. The chocolates produced by this company are primarily known to make use of dairy ingredients as the prime raw material; hence the grade of the products produces becomes high in their standards. The suppliers are found to have a good relationship with the company. This practice tends to set high bars in terms of quality standards maintained by the company which ensures the customers demand and satisfaction (Winders et al. 2016, p.81). Bargain of customers: Due to the high availability of substitute products in the chocolate industry with special emphasis towards chocolate, it can be found that the customers tend to develop a high bargaining attitude among them (Wessel and Quist-Wessel, 2015, p.5). Hershey, however, has been able to overcome this barrier by their marketing strategy of coming up with a wide range of variety of goods and products for their loyal customers. This practice has enabled in surpass the shortcoming posed by the substitute goods. Competitive rivalry within the industry: a tough competitive climate has been evident concerning the chocolate industry. It has been noticed that Hershey has been able to grab the attention of its loyal customers by bringing in innovations in the quality and taste in terms of including new flavours in their wide range of collection (Stuart, 2015, p.32). Hershey is found to lead the industry in terms of production of standard quality products. The rivalry in the market has been a predominant event, although not being able to affect this company adversely. This state of rivalry in the market tends to pose a threat targeting the shortage of chocolate in the world market as it leads to creating pressure upon the cocoa production which is becoming rare in the recent times (Green, 2016, p.45). This event leads to drawing attention towards a global concern which can be addressed by reducing such competition and by minimising the rate of rivalry among companies. Conclusion It can be inferred from the above discussion that proper analysis is necessary to find the areas through which the rising cause of shortage in cocoa production in the world, a market can be fixed through an incorporation of the effective remedy. The PESTEL analysis and the Porters five forces contribute significantly in identifying the internal and the external forces minimising and control which can lead to fixing this problem in the coming years. Reference List Brew, B.A., (2014).Ghanas Prospects of Growth in the Global Economy in Light of Michael E. Porters Model of National Advantage(Doctoral dissertation, University of Ghana). Green, E., (2016). From Extensive to Involutionary Growth: A Dialectic Interpretation of the Boom and Busts of Cocoa Production in the Gold Coast.Journal of Agrarian Change. Harris, B., (2016). Public-Private Partnership Design for Inclusive Cocoa Global Value Chains in Ghana. Horne, P., (2015). Indonesia: From little things big things grow.Partners in Research for Development, (1), p.6. Lebailly, P. and Ahouissou, B., (2015). European directive related to chocolate composition is unfair for the African cocoa planters.EC Agriculture,2(4), pp.384-390 Mighty, M.A., (2017). We Likkle, but We Tallawah: Maintaining Competitive Advantage in the Crowded Specialty Coffee Market.Journal of International Food Agribusiness Marketing,29(1), pp.70-91. Ouya, D., (2014). Village centres to boost cocoa production.Appropriate Technology,41(4), p.29. PICK CALDERN, H.A.N.N.A.H. and NIAVA, L., (2015), October. Redefining the Ivorian Smallholder Cocoa Farmer's Role in Qualitative Research: From Passive Contributions to Passionate Participation. InEthnographic Praxis in Industry Conference Proceedings(Vol. 2015, No. 1, pp. 204-209). Stuart, D.A., (2015). Sustainable Cocoa Production: A Healthy Bean Supply. InChocolate and Health(pp. 28-55). Stuart, D.A., (2015). Sustainable Cocoa Production: A Healthy Bean Supply. InChocolate and Health(pp. 28-55). Wessel, M. and Quist-Wessel, P.F., (2015). Cocoa production in West Africa, a review and analysis of recent developments.NJAS-Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences,74, pp.1-7. Winders, B., Heslin, A., Ross, G., Weksler, H. and Berry, S., (2016). Life after the regime: market instability with the fall of the US food regime.Agriculture and human values,33(1), pp.73-88